Nobel prizes are awarded annually for the outstanding contribution for humanity in the field of Chemistry, Physics, Literature, Peace, Medicine and Economic Science. The prize ceremonies take place annually at Sweden and Norway. Only Nobel Prize for Peace is given by Norwegian Committee in Oslo and rests of awards are given at Stockholm in Sweden. Nobel prizes are given in the memory of Inventor Alfred Nobel. Alfred Nobel invented 355 inventions and out of which invention of dynamite was most famous. In the third and last will that Alfred Nobel signed in Paris on 27 November 1895, he declared that the major portion of his fortune should go towards prizes to the people or organizations who are contributing towards benefit to mankind in the field of physics, chemistry, physiology or medicine, literature and peace.
On 10th December 1901, first Nobel Prizes were awarded. Each recipient receives a gold medal, a diploma and a sum of money which is declared by Nobel Foundation. The Royal Swedish Academy of Science awards the Nobel Prize in Physics, Chemistry and Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Science, Nobel Assembly at Karolinska Institutet awards Nobel Prize in Medicine. Swedish Academy awards Nobel Prize in Literature and Nobel Prize in Peace is awarded by Norwegian Nobel Committee.
Nobel Prizes 2017
Physics: For decisive contributions to LIGO detector and the observation of gravitation waves.
- Rainer Weiss
- Barry C. Barish
- Kip S. Thorne
Chemistry: For developing cryo- electron microscopy for the high resolution structure determination of bio molecules in solution.
- Jacques Dubochet
- Joachim Frank
- Richard Henderson
Physiology/ Madicine: For their discoveries of molecular mechanisms controlling the circadian rhythm.
- Jeffrey C. Hall
- Michael Roshash
- Michael W. Young
Literature: Describe his work as “great emotional force” which “uncovered the abyss beneath our illusory sense of connection with the world”.
- Kazuo Ishiguro
Peace: Draw attention towards consequences of Nuclear weapons.
- International Campaign to Abolish Nuclear Weapons (ICAN)
Economic Science: Contributions to Behavioral Economics
- Richard H. Thaler
Nobel Prizes in 1901
First Nobel Prize in the field of Physics was received by Wilhelm Conrad Rontgen for the discovery of Radiant.
Jacobus H. Van receives first Nobel Prize in Chemistry for explaining osmotic pressure and its importance in plant and animal life.
Emil Von Behring was awarded the first Nobel Prize in the field of Medicine for his work on serum therapy, specially its application against diphtheria. Diphtheria took thousands of lives before a cure was found.
Sully Prudhomme received first Nobel Prize in field of literature. His work showed a “rare combination of the qualities of both hearth and intellect.
Henry Dunant received the first Nobel Prize in the field of Peace with Frederic Passy, a leading international pacifist of the time. Henry Dunant was founder of the International committee of the Red Cross. Red Cross has been awarded the Peace prize three times since then.